I have two primary streams of research focused on the expansion of "mass probation" and the process of penal change, including the persistence of rehabilitation during the "get tough" era and recent attempts to roll-back mass incarceration. In addition, I am starting a new series of projects on race and policing.

You can find a list of my work in progress and published research in each of these areas below. Please email for copies of working papers, forthcoming articles, and pieces behind paywalls.

Mass Probation
Phelps (Under Review). Discourses of Mass Probation: From Managing Risk to Reforming Punishment in Michigan.

Phelps (2015). The Curious Disappearance of Sociological Research on Probation Supervision. Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Annual 7: 1-30.

Phelps (2013). The Paradox of Probation: Community Supervision in the Age of Mass Incarceration. Law & Policy 35(1-2): 51-80.

Race & Policing